Amniocentesis is a diagnostic procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the amniotic sac, the membrane that surrounds the fetus in the uterus.
The spinal cord is the continuation of the brainstem, it lies protected within the vertebral column of the spine. A spinal nerve is any of the 31 pairs of nerves that arise from the spinal cord. The spinal nerves are named according to where it emerges and passes through the bones in the spinal vertebrae.
A sudden loss of kidney function (acute renal failure) can be immediately life-threatening, while chronic kidney failure is a more gradual and progressive deterioration. Chronic kidney failure is the progressive loss of kidney cells and is a feature of long-term disorders including kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and inherited kidney disorders such as polycystic kidneys.